Building a natural stone paver patio, or a walkway,can be a functional and beautiful addition to your backyard landscape, and with proper planning, attention to detail and a little hard work, you can achieve a long-lasting natural stone patio paver regardless of your skill level and experience.
Begin by marking the outside dimensions of the project area. Then, excavate to a depth of four to seven inches, with a shovel. Allow for two to four inches of a compactable underlayment base, 1 to 2 inches of paver sand for leveling and the width of the paver. Then install edge restraints. Edge restraints are required to stabilize the pavers and prevent settling and shifting over top.
Edges should be set to allow for proper drainage, away from structures, and should slope evenly away from structures. One-quarter inch for every twelve feet is sufficient to allow for rain run-off. Evenly spread 2 to 4 inches of QUIKRETE All-Purpose Gravel into the excavated area. Then, level the gravel. Using a tamper, compact the gravel base.
Spread 1 to 2 inches of QUIKRETE Patio Paver Sand over the compacted base. The Paver Sand will act as a leveling bed that the pavers will rest in. Use a two by four and a one by one to construct a screed to level the paver sand to a consistent depth, equal to the width of the paver. Then, screed the sand smooth, removing the excess sand in front of the screen and adding additional sand, behind the screed, as necessary. This will take several passes.
Once your base is level, use stakes and a string for a straight edge, to align the paver rows. Starting in a corner, lay the pavers outward, maintaining a consistent joint width between each paver. Then, tap and level the pavers in place with a rubber mallet. Check to make sure your pavers are square and level, on a regular basis. Now that the pavers are in position, the joints must be filled with sand to hold the pavers in place.
QUIKRETE Powerloc Jointing Sand and QUIKRETE HardScapes Polymeric Jointing Sand are formulated with special dry polymer resin binders and are designed to lock pavers in place. Powerloc Jointing Sand can be used for paver joint widths up to 1/2 inch. For larger joints, up to two inches wide, and for use with natural stone, HardScapes Polymeric Sand is recommended.
Simply sweep the polymeric sand into the joints with a broom and remove any excess sand from the paver’s surface. Make sure the pavers are clean and dry, before application. Then, apply a general fine water mist to the fill joints, flooding the surfaces of the pavers and allowing the water to saturate the sand filled joints. Dampen hourly, at regular intervals, for three hours after placement.
Be sure to avoid flooding the sand onto the paver’s surface. The joints will harden as they dry, usually over a period of several days, depending on temperature and humidity, creating a firm, durable paver joint. Once hardened, QUIKRETE Polymeric Jointing Sand will prevent erosion, insects and weed growth.
The amount of jointing sand you will need varies based on the joint width and paver thickness. A 1/2 inch joint will typically require about five bags per 100 square feet of paver area and two-inch joints will require up to 13 bags per 100 square feet. Polymer resins are temperature-sensitive so temperatures should remain over 35 degrees for a 12 hour period, after application.
Mark the outside dimensions of the project area
TIP: for square or rectangular projects stake each corner and run a line between each stake; for irregular shapes mark the area with spray paint.
Excavate the area to a depth of 4 to 7 inches with a shovel (allow 2 to 4 inches for a compactable underlayment base and 1 to 2 inches of paver sand for leveling and the width of the paver).
Evenly spread 2 to 4 inches of QUIKRETE All Purpose Gravel into the excavated area and level.
Compact the gravel base using a tamper.
Install edge restraints to stabilize the pavers and prevent settling and shifting over time.
NOTE: edges should be set to allow for proper drainage and should slope evenly (1/4 inch for every 12 feet) away from structures.
Spread 1 to 2 inches of QUIKRETE Patio Paver Sand over the compacted base.
Screed the sand smooth using a 2×4 and 1×1. Remove the excess sand in front of the screed and add additional sand behind the screed.
Align the natural stone paver patio rows using stakes and a string.
Lay the pavers outward starting in a corner – maintain a consistent joint width between each paver.
Tap and level the pavers in place with a rubber mallet.
Fill the joints with either QUIKRETE PowerLoc Jointing Sand or QUIKRETE HardScapes Polymeric Jointing Sand to hold the pavers in place.
TIP: QUIKRETE PowerLoc Jointing Sand is recommended for paver joints of up to ½ inch wide. HardScapes Polymeric Sand is recommended for larger joints up to 2 inches wide and for use with natural stone.
Sweep away any excess sand from the natural stone paver patio surface.
Apply a fine water mist to the filled joints flooding the surfaces of the pavers and allowing the water to saturate the sand filled joints.
Dampen at regular hourly intervals for 3 hours after placement – avoid flooding the sand on the paver surface
- QUIKRETE® All Purpose Gravel
- QUIKRETE® Patio Paver Base Sand
- QUIKRETE® PowerLoc™ Jointing Sand (for joint widths up to ½ inch)
QUIKRETE® HardScapes Polymeric Jointing Sand (for joint widths up to 2 inches)
- Pavers OR natural stones
- Carpenter’s square
- Edge restraints
- Garden hose with spray attachment
- Rubber mallet
- 2×4 boards
- 1×1 boards
- Spray paint (optional, for marking irregular shapes)
- Safety glasses
- Driveway Broom